How different types of Data get stored in form of 0 and 1?

1 and 0 are nothing but just two different voltage levels. You can make computer to understand 1 for higher voltage and 0 for lower voltage. There are many different ways to store two voltage levels.

One most basic is as follow

If you have seen floppy, then you will find a magnetic tape which has coating of ferromagnetic material. This is a type of paramagnetic material which has domains aligned in particular direction to give remnant magnetic field even after removal of currents through materials or magnetic field.
During loading of data in the magnetic tape, magnetic field is passed in one direction to call the saved orientation of domain as 1 & for magnetic field is passed in another direction then saved orientation of domain as 0. In this way generally 1 & 0 data are stored.

Text Data

Text is generally stored when typed, then there are certain software’s which are called text compilers, which convert text data into a normal code where each character has some ASCII code or better to use Unicode equivalent like character ‘A’ has its ASCII equivalent as 65 and so on for all characters that are known so that now each of these ASCII codes have an unique binary equivalent i.e, something in form of 1’s and 0’s 7 bits long and in case of Unicode it is about 16-32 bits long, also defined in ASCII and unicode.
A binary level (machine level) compiler processes the data and returns back the result to our normal compiler. Then converts the data back to text from binary. Then we see the output on our screens. And coming to storage part it is stored in a data file which reserves certain memory for storage of that particular file and again the file is also stored in form of 1’s and 0’s.

Audio Data

Audio is an important thing like text to be stored but the problem is how can we store audio, right? The answer is simple we store it according to frequency where each frequency has certain code. The compiler which converts into machine language to store it as explained for text. But how do we know the differences between frequencies? It is also simple as we use microphone to speak we use same principle as audio is converted to an electric analog signal which has different voltages which change with audio frequency and these voltages are what are stored in our computer memory using which we can get back the audio.

Video Data

Now we understood audio data and text data storage methods but what about video or pictures right? Well these data are stored according to pixel colors which we generally read about. Like 1024×768 pixels like that, but you might ask what are pixels? These are simply boxes having a particular colour for each box, whole of our computer screen output is composed of these pixels, now I think you might have understood how to store these right? If not then it is simple, like above two case here also we will use a hexadecimal code for each pixel colour. Store this as explained in above examples. OK we know how to store pictures but what about video? Still simpler, a video is stored in form of a sequence of pictures and now you know what to do. Store these pictures in continuous memory blocks until the video is over.